Black earth is a popular name for fertile soil. Another name for such soil is humus. The black topsoil in the fertile areas is the surface layer of earth, usually several decimetres thick. It is a mixture of organic and mineral substances with lots of bacteria. God gave the earth that bears fruit its black colouring, which enables it to warm fast by the effect of the needed sun energy. In relation to mineral clays, other types of soil, the black topsoil preserves five to ten times more water necessary for giving life and its development. Also, the black earth substance readily preserves nutrients in the forms available to plants. Fertilising the land is something that man does to help the earth bear crop. Fertilising – adding organic matter in the form of fertilisers which combine with the black soil chemical elements – creates new nutrients, nutritious compounds. When they react, substances that contribute crop growth are formed.
There are more than 4.5 million hectares of cultivated land. Most of the fertile land is in Vojvodina, in Kosovo and Metohija and around the Morava and the Sava rivers.