Communism is political ideology which aims for an ideal society structured upon common ownership of the means of production. The theory of communism was developed by the German thinkers, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the 19th century. They criticised the injustices of the Western Civilisation industrial society of that time and predicted an unavoidable radical change to be made through a socialist revolution – a forceful takeover of economic and political positions in the developed countries.

Communists were persecuted in many countries, their work banned due their terrorist activities and being a threat to national security. The first socialist revolution occurred in Russia in October 1917, which gave rise to the first socialist state in the Russian territories  – the Soviet Union, and the socialist and communist parties all over the world developed an idea of communism as a world process.

After the Second World War – while liberating a great part of Europe from the Nazis – the Russian soldiers also enlarged the number of communist countries, subordinate to the Soviet Union. The majority of the communism (maintained by dictatorship means) followers in Yugoslavia was among the Serbs – because of the traditionally rooted values of unity and justice, and the centuries-long experience in farm co-ops. As it could not be successfully reformed under the new circumstances, the Soviet Union broke up in the late 20th century and communism almost disappeared from the world picture, even in Serbia.

The great communist leaders were: Vladimir Ilyich Lenjin and Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin in Russia, Mao Zedong in China, Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia and Fidel Castro on Cuba.


Dimitrije Tucović, Filip Filipović, Milovan Đilas, Aleksandar Ranković, Dragoslav Marković, Petar Stambolić.